Acta Kinesiologica <p>Acta Kinesiologica Journal (AK) is an international peer-reviewed journal that examines practical and research aspects of Sport Physiology, Sport Psychology, Sport Pedagogy, Sport Traumatology and Sport Performance. The editorial mission of AK is to advance the knowledge of Sport and Exercise Physiologists, Sport Scientists, Sport Physicians, Orthopaedic Sports Medicine and Sport-Performance researchers. The journal promotes the publication of research in Sport Physiology and related disciplines that has direct practical application to enhancing Sport Performance and Public Health. The journal publishes original research, brief reports, Invited Commentary / Technical Note, Systematic Review - Meta Analysis, and Letter to the Editor. The intended breadth of AK includes team sports, individual sports, performance aspects of environmental physiology, applied sport nutrition, strength and conditioning, biomedical science, and applications of sport technology. Controlled experimental and observational research of a comprehensive or systematic nature is welcome, provided that appropriate standards of scientific methodology and analysis are met. The journal will be of interest to Sport Scientists, Sport Psychologist, Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Sport Physicians, Coaches, Academic Researchers, Students, and related professionals.</p> en-US [email protected] (Prof. Johnny Padulo) [email protected] (Prof. Franjo Lovrić, University of Mostar, Faculty of Science and education. Rodoč bb 88000 Mostar Bosnia-Hercegovina.) Fri, 01 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Impact of scientific contributions by Italian researchers in the subfield of 'Sport Sciences' using some topic-specific keywords <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This study aims to assess the impact of Italian researchers in the field of Exercise and Sports Sciences (ESS) within<br />the 'Sport Sciences' subfield from 2017 to 2022, utilizing a comprehensive analysis of the top 200 researchers through the Scopus<br />Researcher Discovery function.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> The researchers were categorized by roles (Full Professors, Associate Professors, and Researchers) and by<br />academic scientific discipline: Physical Training and Methodology (code M-EDF/01) and Sport Sciences and Methodology<br />(code M-EDF/02). Trends of total and relative metrics (citations and h-index) over the period 2017-2022 were assessed<br />using Spearman correlation.Non-parametric linear regression analysis was used for the predictive analysis of these trends.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Less than half of these researchers were directly framed with ESS. Among the 83 identified ESS researchers, a detailed<br />breakdown revealed that 29% were Full Professors, 41% were Associate Professors, and 30% were Researchers. However, despite<br />this minority representation, there was a positive and significant correlation between the total impact and the impact specifically<br />within the 'Sport Sciences' subfield. The analysis of bibliometric parameters aggregated by ASD shows positive correlations<br />between total and relative citations, as well as total and relative h-index. These findings suggest a proportional relationship between<br />production and impact. Additionally, disaggregated analysis by ASD confirms these results. Regression analysis further indicates<br />that the independent variables (total and relative citations, total and relative h-index) influence the dependent variable (year).<br /><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This analysis suggests that despite the relative youth of the subfield compared to other related areas, Italian researchers in ESS contribute proportionally to the impact within the 'Sport Sciences' domain. The results demonstrate the congruent development of Sports science and highlight the need for further studies that can measure progress in the impact of scientific production.</p> Gaetano Raiola, Giovanni Esposito, Tiziana D'Isanto Copyright (c) 2024 Acta Kinesiologica Sun, 28 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 COPING WITH STRESS AMONG PHYSICALLY ACTIVE AND INACTIVE STUDENTS AT DIFFERENT EDUCATIONAL STAGES DURING THE PANDEMIC <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The aim of this study was to explore the preferred methods of stress coping among both physically active and<br />inactive students.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 497 students from various educational stages, including primary schools (PS), level 1 vocational schools<br />(VS1), secondary vocational schools (VS2) and comprehensive secondary schools (CSS), ages ranged from 14 to 17 years<br />participated in the study. Data was collected through a standardized questionnaire (How do you cope?) (HDC) and an original<br />survey questionnaire. Nonparametric statistics were applied in the analyses of the results.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: Intergroup comparisons in the dispositional strategy coping with stress show that people exercising ≤15 minutes<br />and (15;30] minutes focused on emotions (DFE) and seek social support (DSSS) more often compared to those exercising<br />≥60 minutes in one day (DFE: P&lt; .01, P&lt; .05; DSSS: P&lt; .01, P&lt; .05, respectively).<br />Situational stress management (SSM) was more often used by students who exercised for (30;60) minutes a day compared<br />to physically passive (PP) ones (P&lt; .05). PP students, compared to those exercising ≤15 minutes a day, more often focused on<br />emotions (SFE) (P&lt; .05) and situational search for social support (SSSS) (P&lt; . 05).<br />In the situational coping strategy, we observed positive moderate correlations (statistically significant for P&lt; .05) for PS<br />students with SFE (R= .36) and for VS1 students with SSM (R= .37). VS2 and CSS students displayed adapted SSM in response<br />to the situation (R= .26; R= . 35, respectively), SFE (R= .34; R= .32, respectively), and SSSS (R= .27; R= .26, respectively).<br /><strong>Conclusions</strong>: To reduce stress, it appears essential to educate children and adolescents on coping strategies and to promote<br />and enhance their capacity to incorporate regular physical activity into their daily routines.</p> Katarzyna Kotarska, Maria Alicja Nowak, Celina Timoszyk-Tomczak Copyright (c) 2024 Acta Kinesiologica Sun, 28 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Changes in eccentric utilization ratio, reactive strength index and leg stiffness in highly trained sprinters between training phases <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To determine changes in eccentric utilization ratio (EUR), reactive strength index (RSI), squat jump (SJ) and<br />countermovement jump (CMJ) parameters in elite sprinters from the preparation phase to the competition (indoor) phase.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> Ten elite-level sprinters (n=10) were examined. All sprinters performed the SJ, CMJ and 10/5 rebound jump (RJ) tests.<br />Body composition analysis was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. A paired t-test was performed to determine<br />statistical significance.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> SJ height and relative peak power increased significantly from 43.10 ± 6.1 cm to 46.30 ± 5.7 cm (P= .013, Cohen’s d=<br />.98) and from 52.62 ± 4.5 W·kg BM-1 to 55.55 ± 4.5 W·kg BM-1 (P= .017, d= .92) respectively. CMJ height and relative peak power<br />increased significantly from 46.78 ± 6.1 cm to 49.18 ± 5.5 cm (P= .039, d= .76) and from 55.53 ± 4.1 W·kg BM-1 to 57.92 ± 4.0<br />W·kg BM-1 (P= .024, d= .86) respectively. No significant differences were observed in RJ performance parameters.<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> SJ and CMJ height, flight time and peak power output per body mass increased in elite sprinters from the preparation<br />to the competition phase while RSI, EUR and leg stiffness (LS) values did not. SJ and CMJ performance can be used as markers<br />of training phase changes in elite sprinters. EUR should be used cautiously to determine training status in elite sprinters since<br />sprint training encompasses reactive strength training all year round. Reactive strength levels via RSI and stiffness levels should<br />be assessed individually in each training phase to determine whether the measured value of these parameters is satisfactory to<br />optimize competition readiness. LS levels should not be compared to general guidelines but rather individually to the athletes’ sprint<br />performance and then training should be adjusted accordingly.</p> Michał Włodarczyk, Krzysztof Kusy, Jacek Zieliński Copyright (c) 2024 Acta Kinesiologica Sun, 28 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Exploring Knowledge, Perceptions, and Awareness of the Emerging Role of Basic Kinesiologists among Internal and External Stakeholders in Italy <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of this study was to compare knowledge, perceptions, and awareness between internal and external stakeholders<br />regarding the figure of the basic kinesiologist. Furthermore, the aim was to verify if the qualification possessed by stakeholders<br />could influence the perception on the adequacy of their training to perform the basic kinesiologist.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> Participants were 95 stakeholders divided in two groups: 63 internal stakeholders, composed of ex-athletes, trainers, technicians, or other management figures who practice their profession in the sports field; 32 external stakeholders, composed of bachelor’s degree students in Exercise and Sports Sciences. An ad-hoc questionnaire was prepared with Google Form and administered to participants via e-mail. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Chi Square was used to analyze difference in perceptions among participants. <strong>Results:</strong> Generally, the knowledge on the introduction of the professional figure of kinesiologist was sufficient. The qualification possessed by stakeholders influenced their perceptions on the adequacy of their training to perform the different activities of the basic kinesiologist (P&lt; .05). Chi Square revealed significant differences between internal and external stakeholders (P&lt; .05) regarding the educational qualification (P= .00), the perception of the adequacy of their training to perform the basic kinesiologist (P= .00), to conduct, manage and evaluate activities to improve the quality of life through exercise (P= .00), to perform the personal training activities (P= .01) and the possession of the qualification issued by Federations and promotion bodies (P= .00).<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study revealed, on one hand, the incomplete adequacy and coherence of university and sports training for working<br />as a kinesiologist, with some differences between internal and external stakeholder, and thus the need to revise L22 curricula; on<br />the other hand, a greater adequacy of training for working as a kinesiologist perceived by those with an L22 degree with an external<br />qualification.</p> Felice Di Domenico, Sara Aliberti, Francesca D'Elia Copyright (c) 2024 Acta Kinesiologica Sun, 28 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 The Prevalence of relative age effect in Youth Olympic Games: implications for talent identification and development in basketball <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The Relative Age Effect (RAE) and Constituent Year Effect (CYE) is increasingly recognized as a significant concern<br />in youth sports, especially in basketball where physical traits such as height, arm span, and leg length are emphasized. This<br />focus often eclipses the critical role of age-related variations in talent scouting processes. This study aims to explore the<br />presence and impact of CYE in basketball, with a specific focus on the Youth Olympic Games (YOG).<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> Utilizing statistical analysis, primarily the Chi-square test and Cramer's V, this research examines the occurrence<br />of CYE among basketball players at the YOG.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The findings decisively confirm the existence of CYE in youth basketball (P= .000, χ2= 51.593, df= 2, Cramer's V=<br />.403). Results of male (χ2 = 29.342, Cramer's V: .431) and female χ2 =23.43, Cramer's V: .383) also subsample suggest a<br />significant skew in player selection based on birth year, with a large effect size in both cases. A notable discovery is the<br />disproportionate number of athletes born in 2000, who are 19 times more common than those born in 2002, indicating a<br />significant age-related skew in player selection. This indicates a strong association between birth year and player selection<br />in the context of the YOG for both genders.<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> CYE's prevalence in youth basketball could detrimentally impact athletes' development and teams' overall<br />performance. The research emphasizes the need for a more equitable and balanced approach in athlete selection. The paper<br />proposes practical steps to reduce CYE in basketball, such as narrowing age categories or establishing smaller, more precise<br />age groups to ensure fairer competition and more accurate talent identification.</p> Drazen Čular, Alen Miletic, Matej Babic Copyright (c) 2024 Acta Kinesiologica Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Percentile norms for the 10x5-metre shuttle run test in a large sample of primary school-aged children: A cross-sectional study <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: In the preceding two decades, comprehensive documentation pertaining to reference standards of health-related physical fitness of school-aged children has emerged. However, prevailing research has mainly concentrated on the establishment of muscular<br />and cardiorespiratory metrics, neglecting certain physical fitness components (notably, motor fitness) for which reference standards<br />have yet to be formulated. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to construct reference standards for the 10×5-meters<br />shuttle run test for Croatian primary school-aged children.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 1.512 healthy children and adolescents residing in the urban area of the<br />city of Zagreb, Croatia (mean age: 9.7 years, range 7-14 years; mean height: 151.0 cm, range 138-173 cm; mean weight: 45.1 kg,<br />range 32-60 kg; 52.5% girls). Sex- and age-specific variations, as well as effect sizes (ES), were investigated through the application<br />of analysis of variance within the study framework for the 10×5-meters shuttle run test.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> he median scores for the 10×5-meters shuttle run test were 22.1 seconds for boys and 23.2 seconds for girls. Sex- and agespecific<br />analyses revealed statistically significant differences, indicating that boys achieved better results compared to girls (F1,15 =<br />36.06, P&lt; .001; ES = .33). Additionally, older boys and girls outperforming their younger counterparts (F1,15 = 30.32, P&lt; .001; ES =<br />.45). Finally, the interaction between sex and age remained significant (F1,15 = 2.50, P= .015; ES = .24), underscoring that older boys<br />were faster in completing the task when compared to individuals of other sex and age groups.<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study revealed discernible sex- and age-related disparities in the 10×5-meters shuttle run test among primary<br />school children. These findings imply that chronologically younger children, particularly younger girls, achieved lower scores.<br />Consequently, these findings underscore the necessity of targeted interventions to enhance speed and coordination/agility abilities<br />in the aforementioned demographic subgroups.</p> Zdenko Klarić, Almin Hopovac, Lovro Copyright (c) 2024 Acta Kinesiologica Mon, 29 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 The Overload knee joint pain in horse riding athletes <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Horse riding has been garnering increasing interest in recent years, but it is also recognized as one of the most<br />injury-prone sports. The aim of this study was to identify the specific causes of overload knee joint pain in individuals<br />practicing horse riding.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: The study group consisted of 18 female horse riders (aged 23.72±3.34 years) and the control<br />group consisted of 19 females (aged 23.68±1.00) not engaged in regular horse-riding training. Internal<br />(IR), external (ER) hip joint rotations, hip joint abduction (ABD) and adduction (ADD) were measured. The<br />abductor, adductor and rotator muscle force moments of the knee were measured under isometric conditions.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: In the study group, 83% of individuals reported experiencing knee joint pain, both during and after horse riding training.<br />Among those experiencing pain, 77% indicated trotting, and 23% reported galloping as the gaits that provoked the most discomfort.<br />Significant higher values were observed in both active and passive IR ranges in both lower limbs in the study group (P&lt; .05). Muscle<br />torque values, normalized to body weight, indicated that the study group had lower adductor muscle torques compared to the control<br />group. Significantly higher muscle strength values were found in both right and left thigh adductor muscles in the study group<br />compared to the control group (P &lt;.001).<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Overall, the above analysis highlights the importance of strength training for riders, particularly focusing on<br />thigh abductors, including gluteal muscles, to balance muscle strength, reduce knee joint loading, and alleviate spinal pains.<br />Improper joint loading is primarily due to the riding position and resulting imbalance between thigh abducting and adducting<br />muscle strengths. Preventing musculoskeletal pain requires a balanced exercise regimen, focusing on muscle groups that are<br />less utilized in riders' movement techniques.</p> Patrycja Żaneta Bobowik, Maria Agnieszczak, Patryk Legut, Ida Wiszomirska, Katarzyna Kaczmarczyk Copyright (c) 2024 Acta Kinesiologica Sun, 28 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 The effects of resisted sprint training programs on vertical jump, linear sprint and change of direction speed in male soccer players: A systematic review and meta-analysis <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to observe the effects of resisted sprint training (RST) on jump ability, linear sprint, and change of direction speed (CODS) performance in male soccer players. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and SportDiscus electronic databases were used as information resources from interception until 30 October 2023. A PICOS (participants, intervention, comparators, outcomes, and study design) approach was used to rate studies’ eligibility. <strong>Results:</strong>The results of the overall effects on RST showed a significant and moderate improvement between pre- and post-test on full sprint time [effect size (ES) -0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) – 1.62, -0.09), Z=2.20 (p = 0.03)]. Resisted sprint training was associated with significant moderate improvement in CODS [ES -0.92 (95% CI – 1.63, -0.20), Z=2.51 (p = 0.01)]. Pooled effects of RST on vertical jump height performance showed small and not significant improvements between pre- and post-test [ES 0.28 (95% CI – 0.17, 0.73), Z=1.23 (p = 0.22)]. Conclusions: Also, regarding the moderator variables, the subgroup analysis suggested high levels of between-group heterogeneity only with session volume in sprint time and CODS performance. Resisted sprint training effectively enhances linear sprint time and CODS performance in male soccer players, whereas this improvement was not significant for vertical jump height.</p> Elena Mainer Pardos, Sara Mahmoudzadeh Khalili, Oscar Villanueva-Guerrero, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Hadi Nobari Copyright (c) 2024 Acta Kinesiologica Sun, 28 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 The effects of multiple factors on post-activation potentiation and performance enhancement: a narrative review <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of this review was to examine the effects of various factors, including recovery time, conditioning<br />activity, range of motion, gender, age, fiber type percentage, training experience, and supplement intake, on post-activation<br />potentiation (PAP) and post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE). After clarifying the differences between these<br />two potentiation strategies, the review examines the physiological mechanisms underlying these processes and their<br />relationship with the aforementioned factors.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> A literature search was conducted in multiple databases, using as keywords those factors, PAP and PAPE.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: PAP/PAPE appears to benefit athletes, adults, and individuals with a higher percentage of fast-twitch fibers more. To<br />increase performance, it is recommended to use an intensity greater than 80% of one repetition maximum and high volumes.<br />For trained subjects, a recovery time of 3 to 10 minutes is beneficial, while its effectiveness for untrained subjects is still<br />unclear. Potentiation is greater when the primer exercise has a wide range of motion and is similar to the verification test.<br />Additionally, supplementation with caffeine or creatine also contributes to the magnitude of potentiation. Finally, although<br />there is evidence suggesting a net potentiation, the balance between fatigue and potentiation remains complex and unclear.<br /><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Each factor that interacts with PAP and PAPE should be evaluated individually to ensure the most appropriate<br />conditioning activity for the athlete.</p> Eugenio Formiglio, Antonino Patti, Eneko Fernández-Peña, Valerio Giustino, Domenico Savio Salvatore Vicari, Alessandro Tamassia, Marco Gervasi Copyright (c) 2024 Acta Kinesiologica Mon, 29 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200 Insight in perception of pain in sports – selected aspects <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Research in recent decades has shed light on the neurophysiological mechanisms of pain, which not only has<br />an information and warning function, but is also considered an important diagnostic factor. The results of various studies<br />indicate that physical activity, especially at moderate intensity, modulates the intensity of perceived pain and generally leads<br />to its reduction.The aim of this study was to characterize in depth the effects of physical activity on pain perception, in<br />particular to deepen the knowledge of the direct and indirect effects of recurrent repetitive injuries on pain perception and<br />modulation of the activity of the endogenous antinociceptive system.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the effects of physical activity and injury on pain perception<br />and the role of the endogenous analgesic system in pain modulation.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Both excessive physical effort and a lack of physical activity are factors that increase the risk of pain. Physical<br />activity, especially training in athletes, exerts loads on the locomotor system structures and by means of the nociceptive<br />system signalises potential hazards through pain. At the same time, these very same loads trigger the processes activating the<br />endogenous analgesia systems. In the case of intense and prolonged physical activity, these systems are subject to adaptation<br />as well as exhaustion.<br /><strong>Conclusions</strong>: For athletes and amateur athletes, knowledge about pain has a practical dimension, enabling conscious,<br />knowledge-based monitoring of applied loads and control of the body's condition. Gaining knowledge about pain in sports<br />can be of great practical importance in the in the training process, during the competition but above all the prevention of<br />injuries. The intensity and quality of pain, although these are subjective feelings, can be defined and analyzed in clinical<br />practice and in research conducted on physically active people, using established procedures and appropriate tests.</p> Maciej Pawlak, Monika Chudecka, Katarzyna Leźnicka Copyright (c) 2024 Acta Kinesiologica Sun, 28 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0200